Since plant volume was strongly correlated with aboveground dry biomass for lupines, such herbivore-induced reductions in volume should translate into losses of aboveground biomass. Deer browsing also significantly altered the likelihood of attack by and density of a leaf-galling cecidomyid fly Dasineura lupinorum , suggesting that a vertebrate herbivore indirectly affected an invertebrate herbivore in this system.
Although deer did not significantly affect the survival of lupine seedlings and juveniles, individuals protected from deer had consistently greater survival in the two separate experiments.
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Our results revealed that snails did not have a significant effect on the survival or growth of juvenile plants, despite being common on and around lupines. This work recognized the achievements of the previous explorers Lindley, Agardh, Watson, Boissier, etc. Our research is based on it as well. Eulupinus and B.
This work was a starting point for our investigations Kurlovich, From the original six species published by Linnaeus , the actual number has increased to a range between to names published in different floristic and monographic works. Smith made a big mess in lupin systematics caused by his description of different taxa, and it has not been disentangled till now. During a number of years his studies were published in the bulletins of Botanical Torr. The author described 56 new species and 33 new varieties.
In , Smith started to publish definitions of the species discovered by him in other periodicals. All these materials were united in his general monograph Species Lupinorum published in separate booklets from through They contained descriptions of different species from Mexico, North and South Americas, and also the Mediterranean, based of his study of herbarium materials and references. This research subsequently led to a real chaos in the systematics of lupin from the western hemisphere.
In the first issue of his monographic work, Smith made a catalogue of the published names of lupin forms presented as species.
There were more than species Smith, Since then this number has grown up and is still growing. A closer view on the materials of some species shows that there were dozens of synonyms. The latter circumstance has very strongly hindered the process of determining their exact names.
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There are 11 or 12 species Gladstones, , ; Kurlovich, We have developed intraspecific classifications for some of them Kurlovich and Stankevich, ; Kurlovich, John S. It will help to clear up many theoretical and practical problems.
Clarification of Lupinus grisebachianus, L. subacaulis, and L. subinflatus (Leguminosae)
The steps to be taken towards this goal are Planchuelo, : identification of truly typical materials; selection of veritable diagnostic morphological characters for species identification; listing of correct synonyms for each validated species; and development of a morphological key to facilitate species identification. The following figure gives representation about complexity of the listed problems, as lupins are presented on the American continent by a huge biodiversity. Phylogeny of Lupinus showing the distributions of the two major New World clades and the diversity life history characteristics of the Andean species.
Naturalist Willim E. Missouri Bot. Barbara M.
Bot Club. Feddes Repert. Regni Veg.
Contacted Waiting Ill. Unknown Public domain, please use full citation J. New York Bot.
New York Botanical Garden; Dr. Leviton Alan Selected issues have been reproduced and displayed with permission of the California Academy of Sciences.