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To view this article you will need to login or make a payment. If you have arrived on this page from an external web site and wish to view the article abstract first, click on the link below. Citation C. Jin, J.
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Not Accessible Your account may give you access. Back to Abstract. Access To view this article you will need to login or make a payment. When the sample was first formulated within a short time window, a thermodynamically less stable intermediate with an unusual morphology of triangular nanoplates and broad absorption was observed. The second structure associated with a metastable pathway generated a uniform population of spherical nanovesicles, while the third structure, generated through a more thermodynamically stable pathway consisted of fibers.
The absorption spectra suggested that both spherical and fiber structures contributed to the J-aggregation band at nm in the near infrared optical spectrum and their population in each formulation was concentration dependent.
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The results highlighted the significance of ion effects in self-assembly of aza-BODIPY and the mechanistic structural changes of the morphology. Furthermore, this fundamental discovery offers a versatile method for the self-assembly of aza-BODIPY J-aggregates as a new nanoplatform with potential photonic applications.
A critical step in the translational science of nanomaterials from preclinical animal studies to humans is the comprehensive investigation of their disposition or ADME and pharmacokinetic behaviours.
Disposition and pharmacokinetic data are ideally collected in different animal species rodent and nonrodent , at different dose levels, and following multiple administrations. These data are used to assess the systemic exposure and effect to nanomaterials, primary determinants of their potential toxicity and therapeutic efficacy. At toxic doses in animal models, pharmacokinetic termed toxicokinetic data are related to toxicologic findings that inform the design of nonclinical toxicity studies and contribute to the determination of the maximum recommended starting dose in clinical phase 1 trials.
Nanomaterials present a unique challenge for disposition and pharmacokinetic investigations owing to their prolonged circulation times, nonlinear pharmacokinetic profiles, and their extensive distribution into tissues. Predictive relationships between nanomaterial physicochemical properties and behaviours in vivo are lacking and are confounded by anatomical, physiological, and immunological differences amongst preclinical animal models and humans.
These challenges are poorly understood and frequently overlooked by investigators, leading to inaccurate assumptions of disposition, pharmacokinetic, and toxicokinetics profiles across species that can have profoundly detrimental impacts for nonclinical toxicity studies and clinical phase 1 trials. Herein are highlighted two research tools for analysing and interpreting disposition and pharmacokinetic data from multiple species and for extrapolating this data accurately in humans.
Empirical methodologies and mechanistic mathematical modelling approaches are discussed with emphasis placed on important considerations and caveats for representing nanomaterials, such as the importance of integrating physiological variables associated with the mononuclear phagocyte system MPS into extrapolation methods for nanomaterials. The application of these tools will be examined in recent examples of investigational and clinically approved nanomaterials. Finally, strategies for applying these extrapolation tools in a complementary manner to perform dose predictions and in silico toxicity assessments in humans will be explained.
Porphyrin photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy and its applications
A greater familiarity with the available tools and prior experiences of extrapolating nanomaterial disposition and pharmacokinetics from preclinical animal models to humans will hopefully result in a more straightforward roadmap for the clinical translation of promising nanomaterials.
The sun is the most abundant source of energy on earth. Phototrophs have discovered clever strategies to harvest this light energy and convert it to chemical energy for biomass production. This is achieved in light-harvesting complexes, or antennas, that funnel the exciton energy into the reaction centers. Antennas contain an array of chlorophylls, linear tetrapyrroles, and carotenoid pigments spatially controlled by neighboring proteins. This fine-tuned regulation of protein-pigment arrangements is crucial for survival in the conditions of both excess and extreme light deficit.
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Photomedicine and photodiagnosis have long been utilizing naturally derived and synthetic monomer dyes for imaging, photodynamic and photothermal therapy; however, the precise regulation of damage inflicted by these therapies requires more complex architectures.
In this Account, we discuss how two mechanisms found in photosynthetic systems, photoprotection and light harvesting, have inspired scientists to create nanomedicines for more effective and precise phototherapies. Researchers have been recapitulating natural photoprotection mechanisms by utilizing carotenoids and other quencher molecules toward the design of photodynamic molecular beacons PDT beacons for disease-specific photoactivation.
Porphyrins in Tumor Phototherapy | R. Cubeddu | Springer
We highlight the seminal studies describing peptide-linked porphyrin-carotenoid PDT beacons, which are locally activated by a disease-specific enzyme. Examples of more advanced constructs include tumor-specific mRNA-activatable and polyionic cell-penetrating PDT beacons. An alternative approach toward harnessing photosynthetic processes for biomedical applications includes the design of various nanostructures.
This Account will primarily focus on organic lipid-based micro- and nanoparticles.
The phenomenon of nonphotochemical quenching, or excess energy release in the form of heat, has been widely explored in the context of porphyrin-containing nanomedicines. These quenched nanostructures can be implemented toward photoacoustic imaging and photothermal therapy. Upon nanostructure disruption, as a result of tissue accumulation and subsequent cell uptake, activatable fluorescence imaging and photodynamic therapy can be achieved.
Alternatively, processes found in nature for light harvesting under dim conditions, such as in the deep sea, can be harnessed to maximize light absorption within the tissue. Specifically, high-ordered dye aggregation that results in a bathochromic shift and increased absorption has been exploited for the collection of more light with longer wavelengths, characterized by maximum tissue penetration.